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This is an unpolished draft of the third edition of this e-book. If you find any error or have suggestions to improve the text, please create an issue via or help us by providing pull requests to close the existing issues.
Networked applications do not exchange random messages. In order to ensure that the server is able to understand the queries sent by a client, and also that the client is able to understand the responses sent by the server, they must both agree on a set of syntactical and semantic rules. These rules define the format of the messages exchanged as well as their ordering. This set of rules is called an application-level `protocol`.
An `application-level protocol` is similar to a structured conversation between humans. Assume that Alice wants to know the current time but does not have a watch. If Bob passes close by, the following conversation could take place :
Alice : `Hello`
Bob : `Hello`
Alice : `What time is it ?`
Bob : `11:55`
Alice : `Thank you`
Bob : `You're welcome`
Such a conversation succeeds if both Alice and Bob speak the same language. If Alice meets Tchang who only speaks Chinese, she won't be able to ask him the current time. A conversation between humans can be more complex. For example, assume that Bob is a security guard whose duty is to only allow trusted secret agents to enter a meeting room. If all agents know a secret password, the conversation between Bob and Trudy could be as follows :
Bob : `What is the secret password ?`
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This translation Propagated Empty cnp3-ebook/principles/transport
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Propagated Empty cnp3-ebook/principles/referencemodels


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locale/cs/LC_MESSAGES/principles/transport.po, string 1