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Sharing resources Le partage de ressources
A network is designed to support a potentially large number of users that exchange information with each other. These users produce and consume information which is exchanged through the network. To support its users, a network uses several types of resources. It is important to keep in mind the different resources that are shared inside the network.
The second possible physical organization, which is also used inside computers to connect different extension cards, is the bus. In a bus network, all hosts are attached to a shared medium, usually a cable through a single interface. When one host sends an electrical signal on the bus, the signal is received by all hosts attached to the bus. A drawback of bus-based networks is that if the bus is physically cut, then the network is split into two isolated networks. For this reason, bus-based networks are sometimes considered to be difficult to operate and maintain, especially when the cable is long and there are many places where it can break. Such a bus-based topology was used in early Ethernet networks.
A third organization of a computer network is a star topology. In such networks, hosts have a single physical interface and there is one physical link between each host and the center of the star. The node at the center of the star can be either a piece of equipment that amplifies an electrical signal, or an active device, such as a piece of equipment that understands the format of the messages exchanged through the network. Of course, the failure of the central node implies the failure of the network. However, if one physical link fails (e.g. because the cable has been cut), then only one node is disconnected from the network. In practice, star-shaped networks are easier to operate and maintain than bus-shaped networks. Many network administrators also appreciate the fact that they can control the network from a central point. Administered from a Web interface, or through a console-like connection, the center of the star is a useful point of control (enabling or disabling devices) and an excellent observation point (usage statistics).
A fourth physical organization of a network is the ring topology. Like the bus organization, each host has a single physical interface connecting it to the ring. Any signal sent by a host on the ring will be received by all hosts attached to the ring. From a redundancy point of view, a single ring is not the best solution, as the signal only travels in one direction on the ring; thus if one of the links composing the ring is cut, the entire network fails. In practice, such rings have been used in local area networks, but are now often replaced by star-shaped networks. In metropolitan networks, rings are often used to interconnect multiple locations. In this case, two parallel links, composed of different cables, are often used for redundancy. With such a dual ring, when one ring fails all the traffic can be quickly switched to the other ring.
A fifth physical organization of a network is the tree. Such networks are typically used when a large number of customers must be connected in a very cost-effective manner. Cable TV networks are often organized as trees.
Sharing bandwidth
In all these networks, except the full-mesh, the link bandwidth is shared among all connected hosts. Various algorithms have been proposed and are used to efficiently share the access to this resource. We explain several of them in the Medium Access Control section below.
Fairness in computer networks
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This translation Propagated Translated cnp3-ebook/principles/sharing
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Propagated Translated cnp3-ebook/exercises/ex-sharing


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locale/fr/LC_MESSAGES/principles/sharing.po, string 2