English French Actions
The `TIME\_WAIT` state is different from the other states of the TCP FSM. A TCP entity enters this state after having sent the last `ACK` segment on a TCP connection. This segment indicates to the remote host that all the data that it has sent have been correctly received and that it can safely release the TCP connection and discard the corresponding :term:`TCB`. After having sent the last `ACK` segment, a TCP connection enters the `TIME\_WAIT` and remains in this state for :math:`2*MSL` seconds. During this period, the TCB of the connection is maintained. This ensures that the TCP entity that sent the last `ACK` maintains enough state to be able to retransmit this segment if this `ACK` segment is lost and the remote host retransmits its last `FIN` segment or another one. The delay of :math:`2*MSL` seconds ensures that any duplicate segments on the connection would be handled correctly without causing the transmission of an `RST` segment. Without the `TIME\_WAIT` state and the :math:`2*MSL` seconds delay, the connection release would not be graceful when the last `ACK` segment is lost.
TIME\_WAIT on busy TCP servers
A detailed presentation of all standardization documents concerning TCP may be found in :rfc:`4614`
Several researchers have analyzed the utilization of TCP and UDP in the global Internet. Most of these studies have been performed by collecting all the packets transmitted over a given link during a period of a few hours or days and then analyzing their headers to infer the transport protocol used, the type of application, ... Recent studies include, or
This 32 bits counter was specified in :rfc:`793`. A 32 bits counter that is incremented every 4 microseconds wraps in about 4.5 hours. This period is much larger than the Maximum Segment Lifetime that is fixed at 2 minutes in the Internet (:rfc:`791`, :rfc:`1122`).
On many departmental networks containing Unix workstations, it was common to allow users on one of the hosts to use ``rlogin`` :rfc:`1258` to run commands on any of the workstations of the network without giving any password. In this case, the remote workstation "authenticated" the client host based on its IP address. This was a bad practice from a security viewpoint.
Of course, such a simultaneous TCP establishment can only occur if the source port chosen by the client is equal to the destination port chosen by the server. This may happen when a host can serve both as a client as a server or in peer-to-peer applications when the communicating hosts do not use ephemeral port numbers.
Sending a packet with a different source IP address than the address allocated to the host is called sending a :term:`spoofed packet`.
The full list of all TCP options may be found at
In practice, only the `SYN` segment do not have their `ACK` flag set.
A complete TCP implementation contains additional information in its TCB, notably to support the `urgent` pointer. However, this part of TCP is not discussed in this book. Refer to :rfc:`793` and :rfc:`2140` for more details about the TCB.
This TCP segment is then placed in an IP header. We describe IPv6 in the next chapter. The minimum size of the IPv6 (resp. IPv4) header is 40 bytes (resp. 20 bytes).
A precise estimation of the maximum bandwidth that can be achieved by a TCP connection should take into account the overhead of the TCP and IP headers as well.
See for more information on how to tune a TCP implementation
In theory, a TCP implementation could store the timestamp of each data segment transmitted and compute a new estimate for the round-trip-time upon reception of the corresponding acknowledgment. However, using such frequent measurements introduces a lot of noise in practice and many implementations still measure the round-trip-time once per round-trip-time by recording the transmission time of one segment at a time :rfc:`2988`
Some security experts have raised concerns that using the real-time clock to set the `TSval` in the timestamp option can leak information such as the system's up-time. Solutions proposed to solve this problem may be found in [CNPI09]_
As a TCP client often establishes several parallel or successive connections with the same server, :rfc:`2140` has proposed to reuse for a new connection some information that was collected in the TCB of a previous connection, such as the measured rtt. However, this solution has not been widely implemented.


User avatar None

New source string

cnp3-ebook / protocols/tcpFrench

New source string 2 years ago
Browse all component changes


English French
No related strings found in the glossary.

String information

Source string location
String age
2 years ago
Source string age
2 years ago
Translation file
locale/fr/LC_MESSAGES/protocols/tcp.po, string 194